Section I. General Provisions

Section I. General Provisions

Article 1. Legislation of the Russian Federation on Specially Protected Natural Territories

1. The legislation of the Russian Federation on specially protected natural territories is based on the relevant provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and consists of this Federal Law, other laws and other regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation adopted in accordance with it, as well as laws and other regulatory legal acts of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation .

2. Relations arising from the use of land, water, forest and other natural resources of specially protected natural territories are governed by the relevant legislation of the Russian Federation and the legislation of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation.

3. Property relations in the area of ​​the use and protection of specially protected natural territories, the organization and functioning of state natural reserves and other environmental protection institutions are governed by civil law, unless otherwise provided by federal law.


Article 2. Categories and types of specially protected natural territories

1. Taking into account the peculiarities of the regime of specially protected natural territories and the status of environmental protection institutions located on them, the following categories of the specified territories are distinguished:

a) state nature reserves, including biosphere reserves;

b) national parks;

c) natural parks;

d) state natural reserves;

e) monuments of nature;

(e) Dendrological parks and botanical gardens;

g) medical and recreational areas and resorts.

2. The Government of the Russian Federation, the relevant executive authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, local governments can establish other categories of specially protected natural territories (territories with landscapes, protected coastlines, protected river systems, protected natural landscapes, biological stations, microzapovedniki and others).

In cities of federal significance in Moscow and St. Petersburg, the powers of local self-government bodies of intracity municipalities to establish categories of specially protected natural territories are determined by the laws of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation - cities of federal importance.

3. In order to protect specially protected natural territories from adverse anthropogenic impacts on adjacent land and water areas, protection zones or districts with a regulated mode of economic activity can be created.

4. All specially protected natural territories are taken into account when developing territorial integrated schemes, land management schemes and regional planning.

5. On the basis of the adopted schemes for the development and deployment of specially protected natural territories or territorial schemes for the protection of nature, the state authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation make decisions on the reservation of lands that are supposed to be declared as specially protected natural territories, and on restricting economic activities on them.

6. Specially protected natural areas may have federal, regional or local significance.

Specially protected natural territories of federal significance are federal property and are under the jurisdiction of federal government bodies, with the exception of land plots that are within the boundaries of resorts of federal importance and are subject to transfer to the ownership of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation or municipal property in accordance with federal law subjects of the Russian Federation or municipal property.

Specially protected natural territories of regional importance are the property of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation and are under the jurisdiction of state authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation.

Specially protected natural areas of local importance are the property of municipalities and are under the jurisdiction of local governments.

7. Territories of state natural reserves and national parks belong to specially protected natural territories of federal significance. Territories of state reserves, nature monuments, dendrological parks and botanical gardens, therapeutic and recreational areas and resorts can be classified as either specially protected natural areas of federal importance, or specially protected natural areas of regional importance. Natural parks are specially protected areas of regional importance. Medical and recreational areas and resorts may be declared specially protected natural areas of local importance.

Specially protected natural territories of federal and regional importance are determined respectively by the Government of the Russian Federation and the executive authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. Specially protected natural territories of local significance are determined in accordance with the procedure established by laws and other regulatory legal acts of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation.

8. The content of the right of state ownership to specially protected natural territories, including the natural complexes and objects located on them, is established in the manner prescribed by Articles 129, 209 and 214 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, unless otherwise provided by this Federal Law.


Article 3. Management and control in the field of organization and functioning of specially protected natural territories

1. State administration and state control in the field of organization and functioning of specially protected natural territories of federal significance are carried out by the Government of the Russian Federation and federal executive authorities in the field of environmental protection.

2. State administration and state control in the field of organization and functioning of specially protected natural territories of regional importance are carried out by the state authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation.

3. Management and control in the field of organization and functioning of specially protected natural territories of local importance are carried out by local governments.


Article 4. State cadastre of specially protected natural territories

The state cadastre of specially protected natural territories includes information on the status of these territories, their geographical location and borders, the mode of special protection of these territories, users of natural resources, environmental education, scientific, economic, historical and cultural values.

The state cadastre of specially protected natural territories is carried out in order to assess the state of the natural reserve fund, determine the prospects for the development of the network of these territories, increase the effectiveness of state control over compliance with the relevant regime, and also take into account these territories when planning the socio-economic development of regions.

The procedure for maintaining the state cadastre of specially protected natural territories is established by the federal executive body authorized by the Government of the Russian Federation.


Article 5. Participation of citizens and legal entities in the organization, protection and functioning of specially protected natural territories

Citizens and legal entities, including public and religious associations, have the right to assist state bodies in the implementation of measures for the organization, protection and functioning of specially protected natural territories. When implementing these activities, state bodies take into account the proposals of citizens and public associations.